Definition User-Generated Content: information submitted by members of the public or posted on social media

BREAKING NEWS – reported from John Smith, Manly

BREAKING NEWS – reported by Stacey Shaw, Armadale

BREAKING NEWS – reported from Benjamin Rodgers, Bondi


The media landscape is changing. Traditional media may no longer be first on scene and or first to discover the news. Now citizens are at the scene generating images and or updates on news, especially disasters, creating content as it happens. During the London bombing in 2005, it was citizens who helped locate the bombs.

Why is user-generated content becoming one of the most authentic news sources? Because it is in real-time, its one-to-many and then turns into a many-to-many allowing it to spread, be re-shared and used by any one of the public.

This creates blurred lines between the journalist and publics and so it is so important now that journalists engage in digital and operate by ‘digital first’. For those in communication, there isn’t a pinnacle skill level as we have come to learn this semester, that constantly history of the internet and digital are changing and it is up to us to keep up to date on advances being made.

So much UGC is out in the digital world, both content happening in the moment as well as content that is archived. Therefore journalists need a forensic approach, to be able to collate and distinguish which UGC content is reliable, authentic, useable and truthful. Applications such as ‘Twitter Stand’ are just one example of a system that ‘can gather and disseminate breaking news faster than conventional news media’.

UGC is growing at fast rate; being able to gather, analyse and utilise the unique content is a journalistic tool that is essential.

*This was week 8


The Powerful of Content sharing


What are the things that you afraid the most? Words from the others people mouth? Bad comments received from the guest? The bad review from the lecturer? Most of the people will modify some pretty word or add own opinion before telling the truth story to another person.

For example, we will base on the review showed at the website, to decide whether we should stay at the hotel or going for a trip. Most of us will do some research regarding the quality of the hotel service, good comment review of the restaurant and so on. Not just for the consumers own good but also very important for the producers or merchandisers of the good image of the companies.UA

There is an issue happen to United Airlines on 11 April 2017, this news has been shared over the social platforms by just one night and thousand of bad reviews have been given by the public. This link was the news that mentioned about the issue happen and the content of the video was captured by at few passengers on the plane, Man dragged off overbooked United flight by police as fellow passengers look on in horror. ( Another news example that happened on the next day of the United Airlines company, United shares fall as social media firestorm over forcibly removed passenger spreads to China ( . This news was the top trending item on Sina Weibo, the Chinese equivalent of Twitter with the hashtag #UnitedForcesPassengerOffPlane, with more than 270 million views, reported by Justin Bachman and Linly Lin from The Sydney Morning Herald on 12 April 2017.This is presented how powerful is the content sharing on top of the interaction between content producers and consumers can do.

Gave United Airline all the attentions they never expected!

Needless to say, a paid and seated passenger was dragged off an United airplane was one of news that attract most attention and discussion on social media. This led to tons of past customer of UA share their unsatisfied service and experience via various social media platforms. This would consider the most significant PR crisis UA had every experienced. By the end of April, UA had reached an undisclosed settlement with Dr. David Dao the passenger, but the amount remain confidential.

屏幕快照 2017-04-30 22.16.56.png

Coincidently, this is not the first time of UA’s reckless go viral on social media. Dave Carroll a musician flied UA and his $3500710 Taylor guitar was broken due to the violent acting by baggage handler, but he wasn’t get an satisfied treatment and resolution after all. He then wrote three songs and MVs called “United Break Guitars” an overnight sensation with over 15 million YouTube views, and he even published a book! This was happened in 2008, however the time that social media was not as influential as today, it also caused UA stock share largely decrease.

As an individual, fighting with big cooperations to strive for own’s rights would be throw an egg against a rock. But with the existence of social media, participatory journalism has reduce the non-equivalence significantly. We’re not alone anymore, online world is powerful, together we will make a difference.   

Are you having Nomophobia?


How often do you looking at your mobile devices during your free time? What will you do while taking the public transport? I believe that some of us are having Nomophobia which is a close attachment with the mobile phone and overuse of mobile phone during our free time, and we do probably feeling empty when we don’t have our phone with us. As a human nature, it has been program default to be socially active to a certain extent. This appearance is considered as the participatory journalism which the media users have developed a relationship with the media.

The traditional platform of the journalism has been slowly replaced and transformed into the social networks and social media sites along with the mobile media platforms. It is very hard to get us out from our house now to get a printed newspaper or magazine when you can lying on the bed to read the updated news from your mobile phone or tablet.

Facebook is one of the largest social networking sites in the world which widely used for networking with family and friends, and also getting the most updated news from the certain pages. For example, the Hong Kong Umbrella Revolution in September 2014 has used the Facebook as the important medium to spread the message and photos to the other parts of the world. Everyone can know about what is happening on the other side of the world by clicking the “Share” button to pass the content or video on.

HK Umbrella Revolution

Furthermore, by watching the videos that shared from the Facebook pages you will get to see the different point of view on and comments. For example, the video that was taken by the professional reporter or by the normal people. Some of us may enlarge the cases or misunderstand the main point of the video so it is important to have critical thinking on the information that we received or visit the official website like the ABC News-


Twitter Is My Source of News

Screen Shot 2017-04-30 at 6.17.03 PM

Nowadays it’s getting even more difficult to watch the news on television or read newspapers. Mostly because I don’t watch too much TV anymore and I perceive newspapers as not environmentally friendly. But at the same time, as a part of the millennial generation who often fears of missing out on the latest updates, I still need to read the news to know what is going on with the world around me. That is where social media comes in handy.

On social media, I am mostly active on Twitter and Reddit. Hence, I follow the necessary outlets as pictured above (please disregard the Nihilist Arby’s and The Onion for I have a dark sense of humour sometimes) on my Twitter account.

Twitter for me has come very handily in following news updates, especially if you follow the right media outlet, people with influence, or when some hashtags appear on the trending topic list. My behaviour, as explained by Weeks and Holbert, is among the advantages brought upon by social media in relaying the news. By using social media to consume the news, the users maintain much control of the information environment. Additionally, users can also participate by selecting which content to consume and sharing it with others.

This has also led to the rise of what is commonly known as ‘citizen journalism.’ Propelled by the rise of smartphones and tablets, citizen journalism can be described as news reporting by locals who happen to be on the scene of events. Some have taken citizen journalism as helping news outlets to create news stories, while others criticise citizen journalism because it is not a real journalism and may spread fake news/hoax. Twitter is especially useful for citizen journalism because a tweet can often spread fast and gain wide attention within hours. For more details about citizen journalism, you can read this article by Mashable.

TL;DR Thank you, Twitter for providing me news updates every day!

News under the ‘self-media’ era.

With arrival of the news media 3.0, China access into ‘we media’ period in 21 century.The rising of micro blog has launched a new revolution in media area which Changed the traditional communication model. Individuals maximize their participation in communication activities. It has provided the conditions for the development of citizen journalism.


Weibo as Chinese Twitter played an immprotant role in ‘we media’ era. Sina Weibo now has over 100m users, and is still growing fast. Weibo has become a crucial information source, especially for breaking news. Some unexpected incidents journalists are not able to arrive on the sence, but the people who have been there may report it on Weibo and record the crucial moment. If it reposted above 500 times, it will hit the Weibo headlines.


With leading the development of self-media era, weibo recipients are not only information receivers, but also turning into information producers and disseminators. ‘We media’ brings both the expression room for commoners and the huge economic benefits for network service providers come true. But what is worth our consideration is that also makes the relationship between public opinion and judicial becomes more and more subtle and complex.


Where do you remember 1st seeing this face?

April 2017’s Online Celebrity (Move over Salt Bae!)






Don’t tell me you don’t know who this man is. As of mid-April 2017, every news outlet and possible platform served up this incredibly absurd PR tragedy for United Airlines.  Content is king. So, if a story is compelling enough as this, no matter what platform you digest it off, it won’t truly matter. You definitely were able to read up on the mentioned incident on Instagram via various memes that lead you to the story, videos uploaded from witnesses onto their SNS such as Facebook and so on. Certainly with the rise of social media and proliferation of mobile media platforms, the event blew up on the Internet and the organization faced dire consequences. What’s the cost of dragging one of your paying customers off a flight in the digital age? A cool 1 billion dollars. Tuesday shares were down about 4%, which at the time had erased $994.2 million in market capitalization. Prior to having smartphones and tablets super-glued to our hands as a virtual extension of the self, United Airlines stocks would of maybe not even been affected considering the only people involved would be those on the flight and who ever they would of told. However, in 2017 where everything is a share or retweet away, it would be hard for Wall Street to not reflect the PR nightmare and the turbulence their actions caused on the web. Gary Kaltbaum, president of Kaltbaum Capital Management notes, “before social media like Twitter and Facebook, before the advent of fast communication, maybe they can get away with something like this, but it is a whole new ballgame. You spend a lifetime and a ton of advertising money trying to gain a great reputation with a moniker like “Fly the friendly skies,” but it takes one incident to completely undo it. It’s tough to recover quickly with everyone seeing it, and makes people think twice about who they will fly with. United’s stock [today] reflects the negative potential.” Even though the stock has recovered, the company’s image has been tarnished. If no one heard of United before, they unquestionably do now. And that’s not a good thing.

See video HERE




Photo speaks it All!


Have you ever not taking a single photo in your daily life? What else will you do after you take a photo from your phone or from your camera? I believe that everyone does it just to capture every memorable moment in our lives. It can simply capture the bunch gathering with friends, smiling faces during the catch-up session or places that we went during our holiday.

Instagram is a mobile photo-sharing application that allows people to post photos and videos which were launched in October 2010. It is well known as a platform for everyone to share the moment of their life with friends and family besides Facebook. However, the Instagram has agreed to be acquired by Facebook (  since 9 April 2012, mentioned by Kevin Systrom, CEO, and co-founder of Instagram.

Besides, Instagram has improved with some features, for example, the live broadcast that allowed the users to instant share the right-now moments with friends and or shares the moments with the people they follow. Business also benefited this feature to gain more interactions with all the followers as well as liking, commenting, mentioning, tagging and direct message.

Apart from that, Instagram also having the special explorers ( on the second page when you swipe to the left, like looking for people, special or trending tags, and the famous places. Therefore, photos and videos are playing an outstanding role in our life by capturing or showing throughout of the social media, especially at Instagram. All these wonderful features and function are due to the improvement and development of internet that brings all of us step further into the world and have more interaction with one another.


The Dark Side of the Internet a.k.a The Deep Web




For the past decade, the internet has become the champion of communication freedom. From news, technology, gaming, to social media, everything is now built with internet connectivity in mind so we can be continuously connected with each other. But, with all good things that come from the advancement of internet, comes the bad ones along as well. Most people may not care much about it since all they are looking for is already up there on the ‘surface’ of the internet. But, if you really want to know better about the history of the internet, you should learn about its dark side too, even if it’s only a little.

According to Nick Douglas, the dark side of the internet, also known as ‘Internet Ugly’, is an aesthetic produced by internet’s advantages namely speed and lack of gatekeepers. One of the prime examples of ‘Internet Ugly’ is 4chan, notoriously known as the birthplace of memes and rage comics, which made their way into mainstream internet not long after that.




I personally see 4chan as the gateway to the deep web. Its environments can be toxic to some, especially because the community is so tight regarding their anonymity and it has no strict guidelines. Even Reddit, which you can refer to as the organised version of 4chan, has its dark sides too. You will never know until you eventually stumbled upon a subreddit (i.e. specific topics on the website) that makes you immediately close your tab.

And also, one cannot talk about the deep web without a slight mention of TOR browser. I won’t go further in it, but you can read this article from Sydney Morning Herald that basically sums up everything that I know about the deep web. And if you ever decide to go further into the deep web, a word of warning: Proceed With Caution.



“It is not just a communication tool but a way of life.”
Steve Jobs

I wake up to the dreaded sound of my alarm going off.


Swipe left to check the weather outside.

Weather says 17 and late showers.

I grab my headphones and iPhone.

Spotify on, MapMyRun on.

4kms in, the sun is rising, so I stop to take an Insta Story along with a Snapchat.


Stop MapMyRun. 10kms done.

The sun has risen and Bronte beach looks amazing. Snapchat and Instagram upload.

Back up the 2km hill home.

I turn on the 3AW app (despite moving to Sydney, I still like to listen to the news in Melbourne).

Back home.

Forecast says rain is expected mid-morning now.

Bring in washing.

Rents due, transfer by BPay.

Phone bills due, pay bill via Optus app.

Check calendar. Oh shit, my appointment was 8.30am.

Call them to tell them I’ll be late.

16 notifications on the group WhatsApp.

Lunch confirmed for 12.30pm at Bellagio.

Hm, haven’t been there before.

Google Bellagio menu. Insta location Bellagio for photos. Yum food looks good. I’ll get the corn fritters with a side of bacon.


Time? 9.15pm.

Okay I have a few hours to do some work.

Study. Check phone. Study. Check phone. Study. Check phone, 12.10pm.

Text Eliza to tell her to be out front. Damn she’s not at hers.

Google maps. 15mins away! AH we’ll be late for lunch.

Text Bridgette to say we’ll be five minutes late.

“Lize, I’m out front xx”

Bluetooth turned on, Spotify on through the radio.

Text Bridgette saying we are 5 away.

Lunch done. Split the bill and transfer the money to Eliza.


“When you were 25 and had a lunch on, what was your day like?”

Analog alarm goes off. Get up.

Go for a run.

Collect the paper from the lawn. Weather says top of 23c.

Go to the office.


Lunch with two friends at 12.30pm. Arrive at 12.20pm.

All pay for our lunches because we’ve all brought cash.

Get home after work. Washings wet because the forecast changed during the day.

Times have changed.